Lung disease is a type of pulmonary disease. It is estimated that currently there are 600 million pulmonary patients worldwide and by the year 2028 the said malady will likely become the third largest fatal disease. Modern diagnostic technologies are available for diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, but due to limited access to modern technologies and the financial burden on the rural population, X-ray is an effective technique to deal with pulmonary diseases. Lung cancer is also a pulmonary disease, which is the world’s most severe cancer. Most of the time patient is unaware of lung cancer until an X-ray is performed. The manual analysis of the X-ray image is not only expensive, but error-prone. Therefore, various Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) based techniques have been applied to automatically detect the cancer nodule present in the X-ray image. Recently, Deep Learning based Convolution Neural Network techniques have been used to detect the diseases present in X-ray images. However, deep learning systems need a huge number of images for training before they are implemented in the real-world scenarios and the deployment of these systems are still in the initial stages as it is extremely challenging to automatically recognize or detect cancer present in an X-ray image. The problem arises when we face a lack of training images due to which the performance of such systems decreases exponentially. This research focuses to use the balanced dataset with Transfer-Learning based Deep Learning network by combining Vgg16 and Custom CNN to classify model with high accuracy, our model yields 88% of Accuracy, 83% of Sensitivity, and 92.4% of Specificity in Binary class while in Multi-class we have achieved 89% of Accuracy, 89% of Sensitivity and 94% of Specificity. The proposed study is performed both in Binary class and multi-class & our proposed research has outperformed the current cutting-edge models.
This review encompasses recent trends and progress in the field of 3D printing technology. 3D printing technology is one of the emerging and very much applicable field of research. In this review special literature survey is carried out for 3D printing of materials based on polymeric nanocomposites utilizing stereolithography due to very important and interesting applications of these new materials on industrial scale. 3D printing technology utilizing interesting, materials like polymer composites have revolutionized this field because of the production of scaffolds for biomedical applications. The review also extends its literature survey about progress in the field of bioprinting technologies utilizing biopolymer materials as inks.
Author: Sidra Naeem1, Muhammad Azhar 2, Saira Jabeen 2
1: Junior Executive, Technical Services Department, Fauji Fertilizers Company (FFC)
2:Department of Chemistry, Hazara University, Mansehra, 21300, Pakistan
(For Correspondence) email. firstname.lastname@example.org
In terms of commercial and industrial applications, polymers exhibit a wide array of functional characteristics due to their chemical stability, thin weight, and low cost. The main technological obstacle is the low thermal conductivity of polymers, despite excellent applications such as electronic packaging and heat transfer. Researchers have been working on improving polymer thermal properties since two decades. Aiming firstly to summarize the molecular level understanding of the polymer heat transfer mechanism and secondly, to highlight the rationale behind the recent efforts to improve the material’s thermal properties, this research review article looks at aspects of different inter-chain coupling processes, the length of chains, and the morphological properties of polymers. This review summarizes the main challenges, key advances, and thermal properties of polymer composites.
Yousaf Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rehman2, Kashif Zaman3, Madeeha Bibi3
1 Department of Chemistry, COMSATS University Islamabad, 45550, Islamabad Pakistan
2Department of Chemistry, University of Baluchistan, Quetta, Pakistan
3Department of Chemistry, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan
email addresses. email@example.com
The study area under investigation is located in one of the important floristically rich regions of northern Pakistan. A few surveys of Phyto diversity have been carried out. This is the first attempt to explore the flora taxonomically. The aim of present study was to provide a checklist of local flora of village Hangrai, tehsil Balakot of district Mansehra. The research area was extensively visited during flowering and fruiting seasons of plants during the summer of 2021 and 2022. Plants were collected from different location, voucher number were given to specimen and other relevant data pertaining to habit, habitat, families, scientific name, local names, life forms and phenology were recorded for each species. Mounted copies of each voucher specimen were deposited in Herbarium of Botany Department, Govt. Post Graduate College Mansehra. A total 189 plant species scattered in 75 families and 157 Genera were identified from the study area. Poaceae was found to be the most dominant family having 37 species, followed by Rosacea with 21 species and Asteraceae having 9 species. While the remaining families showed less than six species. Amongst 75 families, 68 were Angiosperms, 2 Gymnosperms, 2 Bryophytes and 3 were Pteridophyte families. This information pertaining to nomenclatural status, current presence of taxa, families, Genera, life forms, habit, habitat, locality and their Phenology will be a comprehensive base line for future exploration of the plant biodiversity.
Danish Ali1, Dr. Abbas Hussain Shah2, and Dr. Azhar Mehmood2
1 Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra, KPK, Pakistan.
2 Department of Botany, GPGC Mandian Abbottabad
Corresponding Author; firstname.lastname@example.org
A variety of diseases can be treated with marine natural products traditionally. Drug discovery and drug development have been greatly facilitated by these marine alkaloids. Various minerals, plants, microbes, and animals are used to extract these marine natural products. Biological diversity is greatly influenced by these marine natural alkaloids. In the near future, a large number of compounds are being tested in clinical trials that have been extracted from marine plants and animals. As a source of therapeutic agents, marine alkaloids are considered as being of medicinal importance in the pharmaceutical industry. It has been discovered that many potent molecules are capable of preventing cancer, viral, inflammatory, and microbial diseases. Hence, it is necessary to explore these marine alkaloids now and in the near future to design, develop, and discover new drugs.
Zia Ur Rehman Panizai1, Yousaf Khan2, Bashir Ahmed 3
1: Department of Chemistry, University of Baluchistan, Quetta.
2: Department of Chemistry, COMSATS University Islamabad campus, 45550, Islamabad.
3: Department of microbiology Quaid e Azam university Islamabad Pakistan
The propagation of linear electrostatic waves is investigated in a magnetized plasma with Cairns distributed electrons and Maxwellian positrons. The dispersion relations are derived through linearization. It is found that the variation of several plasma parameters, like positron concentration , warm ion effect , nonthermality parameter and magnetic field strength significantly alter the characteristic properties of ion acoustic waves.
This study was designed to document the folk uses of common grass species during 2021-2022 during spring seasons. Questionnaire method and interviews were employed for data collection. A total of 215 informants were interviewed which included local farmers, healers, shepherds and women. Study revealed 37 species of grasses belonging to 2 families with various folk uses. Of these 21 species were used as fodder, followed by 13 species having medicinal uses. These grass species are used to cure asthma, as astringents, to treat leprosy blood clotting, wound healing, and Diabetic and as anthelmintic. Remaining grass species were found which were used commonly in making baskets, brooms, clips, mostly girls of the study area kept flower of Cyperus niveus in hair for beauty. Some of these grasses are also grown in the locality for ornamental purposes such as Cynodon dactylon. In part used the leaves of moost of the grasses were used to cure different diseases and many others purposes. Rest of whole plants, rhizome and rarely flowers were also documented Ethno botanically in the study area.
Dr. Abbas Hussain Shah1, Danish Ali2, Dr. Zayad Tariq3and Dr. Azhar Mehmood
1Department Botany Government Post Graduate College Mandian abbottabad
2Department of botany, Hazara University Pakistan
3 Khyber Medical University Peshawar.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com.
Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an ecofriendly method utilizing Nicotiana rustica leaves extract as a reducing agent. The UV-VIS, EDX, SEM and XRD techniques were used to study the composition, morphology, and crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested for their antibacterial activity against two gram positive and two gram-negative bacteria. The nanoparticles show good activity against all examined bacterial species however their activity is low than levofloxacin used as standard drug.
Sardar Siddique Ur Rahman1, Kishwar Sultana2
1Government Postgraduate College Mandian Abbottabad
2 Department of Physics, Hazara University, Mansehra 21300 Pakistan
* Corresponding author: Sardar.firstname.lastname@example.org