The paper is an attempt to investigate the nature and dynamics of consociational political strategies during the Pakistan Peoples’ Party regime from 2008 to 2013. It is argued that the political and democratic system of Pakistan witnessed a drastic transformation in the behavior and preferences of political leadership in the post-CoD political environment. The paper puts into question the conventional wisdom, which denies the applicability of the consociational theory in Pakistan, and finds that during its five years tenure, the leadership of PPP successfully materialized different aspects of consensual democracy. It is founded that PPP implemented principles of a grand coalition, supremacy of parliament, segmental autonomy, and proportionality in services that are the core principles of the consociational theory. The regime also ensured constitutional supremacy of democratic institutions, such as the parliament and political parties which is one of the core objectives and nature of consociational theory.
Climate change in the global world, because of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions has become a serious issue. Due to these factors, emerging economies of South Asia are facing the threats of CO2 emissions, global warming, and climate change. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of economic growth, population, and energy consumption on environmental degradation from 1990 to 2019. In this work, two sets of methods Panel Auto Regressive Distributive Lag Model (ARDL) and Fixed Effect Models are used. The outcome of ARDL suggested that in the long run, CO2 emissions have a positive relation with energy consumption, whereas negative relation with GDP per capita and population. In the short run, CO2 is positively impacted by energy consumption and population while it has negatively impacted by GDP per capita. Moreover, the results of the Fixed-effects model also validated the same results. This study recommends that all three countries should replace non-renewable and fossil fuels with clean and green fuels by investing in modern technologies.
Muddasar Khan, Waqas Ahmed, Maria Siddique
Corresponding author: Waqas Ahmed: email@example.com
This study intended to explore the dynamic nexus of financial advancement indicators (Money Supply and Credit) and Economic Growth in Pakistan. The intentions were to quantify both linear and non-linear type connections between financial advancement and economic prosperity. This study also evaluated the direction of the causation between the two financial development indicators and economic prosperity. This study employed Time Series Data (TSD) from 1991 to 2021. The study employed Co-integration and Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) to quantify the nexus. The study also utilized the granger causality test to ascertain the causation. The results verified the existence of a non-linear type of nexus between financial advancement and economic prosperity. Physical capital and human capital have a direct impact on the GDP, while, trade openness has inverse effects. The results of granger causality stated two opposites. The nexus of Broad Money Supply and GDP stated that the causation runs from the economic growth to the BMR that verified the Demand Side Theory. The granger causality test between the GDP and Private Credit revealed that causality run from financial growth to GDP which confirmed the existence of Supply Leading Theory. This study recommended speeding up the digitization of financial markets which will increase velocity and facilitates financial transaction. Additionally, it will ultimately improve the per capita income and leads to Economic prosperity.
Naseer Shahzada, Dr. Khalid Mughal, Saddam Shahzad
Corresponding author: Naseer Shahzada: firstname.lastname@example.org
Climate Change is the reality and accepted human crisis of today’s world. It has implications for human life worldwide, but developing countries are more vulnerable to its impacts. This is mainly because of their poor resources and socio-economic infrastructure. In Pakistan, the climate change implications have been visible for the past few decades. Almost all key human survival sectors are vulnerable, such as water, agriculture, food, energy, health, and security. Climate change also triggered natural disasters like floods, extreme weather, famine, and heavy rains. The country is trying to cope with the situation through climate-related legislation and policy measures. The objective of this research is to explore Pakistan’s legislative and policy response to climate change. The paper analyses the country’s existing institutional and legal response to climate change using existing literature on the subject. It is an exploratory research. To deal with the objectives qualitative methodology has been employed, while data is collected from both primary and secondary sources.
Irfan Raja, Kamran
Corresponding author: Raja Irfan: email@example.com
The 9/11 attacks significantly altered the geopolitical landscape, forcing the major nations to reevaluate and revise their foreign policy goals. Numerous causes in the Central Asian region led the big powers to continue their participation. One such result of the Post-Cold War environment is the competition and collaboration between China and Russia. This article outlines the Sino-Russian engagement dynamics that put their relationship to the test. This article examines the causes of the rivalry between these two powers by using Neorealism, as an approach. It investigates their various activities and evaluates the effects of these dynamics on their relationships. The research article’s approach relies on secondary sources because the data was acquired from publications including books, articles, newspapers, websites, blogs, etc. It is found that they are supportive of one another when they feel pressure from the West. Their relationships in the international system have improved dynamically despite their asymmetries.
Corresponding author: Malik Firdous: firstname.lastname@example.org
This research was conducted to critically study the role of traditional and modern Audio-Visual aids in enhancing the speaking competency of the male students of secondary classes of the government schools of Hazara Division. By using a random sampling technique, 400 students and 40 Senior Subject Teachers were taken as a sample. Two questionnaires for teachers and students were developed. The students were also interviewed to assess their speaking proficiency. Statistical tools, such as percentage and mean frequency were used to analyze the collected data. A validated and quantified rubric was used for measuring interviews of the students. It was found that the speaking skills of most of the students were weak. The majority of teachers did not use A.V. aids like smartphones, computers, the internet, television, and recorded news and tapes of native English language speakers. Moreover, the language lab was not used to improve students’ pronunciation. English language teachers, generally, used English language textbooks, blackboards, and chalk to teach speaking proficiency. It is suggested that language labs should be established in schools. Besides this smart phones, computers, tape recorders, radios, television, and low-cost material should also be used to improve the speaking skill of students.
Dr. Malik Junaid Ahmad, Dr. Muhammad Iqbal Majoka
Corresponding author: Dr. Malik Junaid Ahmad: email@example.com