During research work, taxonomic diversity of several harmful Basidiomycota, such as rust fungi was studied in upper Sirran valley Mansehra Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) of Pakistan. In the spring and fall of the year 2020, a survey was conducted at ten (10) different sample locations in the chosen areas. A total of twelve (12) taxa were identified using morphological techniques. These twelve (12) taxa, comprises of four families, in which seven (07) taxa belonging to family Pucciniaceae consisted of two genera, that’s Puccinia having six (06) species and Uromyces having only one specie. While phragmidaceae family having one genus that’s Phragmedium consisted of two species, family Melampsoraceae comprises of one genus consisted of two species and family Phakopsoraceae comprises of only single genera that’s Cerotelium consisted of only one specie. This data will be useful for updating Pakistan’s fungal flora checklists and for taxonomic and phylogenetic comparative research in the future. This helps in the selection of appropriate biological control agents for a variety of weeds that threaten the economically significant crops grown on this agricultural land.
Muhammad Ilyas*1, Abbas Hussain Shah1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Abdul Majid2
1Botany Department, Govt Post Graduate College Mansehra
2Botany Department, Hazara University Mansehra
Cesium lead iodide (CsPbI3) has been considered a promising addition to inorganic halide perovskite for its durability and potential to gain efficiency. However, to take maximum advantage of its optoelectronic features, a deep understanding of its structure and the working mechanism is necessary, which has not been the case so far. In the present study, we modeled a perovskite solar cell device using SCAPS-1D to investigate efficiency limit of CsPbI3as photo absorber, and the factors affecting its performance parameters. Studies have revealed that Spiro-OMeTADas Hole Hole Transporting Layer (HTL) and TiO2as Electron Transporting Layer (ETL) are the best suitable material for these device architectures. Thus, we have incorporated these materials for their respective functions. In addition, device performance was also observed by varying various parameters such as; work functions of the rear electrode, absorber layer thickness as well as defect density of photoabsorber layer. Under improved conditions, 23.62% conversion efficiency was achieved FTO / TiO2 / CsPbI3 / Spiro-OMeTAD PSC, indicating that there is plenty of room for further performance enhancement.
Key Points: Perovskite Solar Cells (PSC), Absorber, Photovoltaic (PV), Simulation, SCAPs-1D
Rimsha bibi1, Anis Naveed, Aroosa Bibi, M. Abrar2, Mohammad Hatamvand4, Irfan Ahmed1,2,3*,
1Department of Physics, Government College, Balakot, 21300 Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan.
2Department of Physics, Hazara University, 21300 Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan.
3Center of Micro-Nano System, School of Information Science and Technology (SIST), Fudan University, 200433, Shanghai, China.
4Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLoFE) & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (Nanjing Tech), 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing 211816, Jiangsu, China.
Perovskite solar cells have been considered a breakthrough in Photovoltaic’s history. Tremendous research has been carried out on perovskite based solar cells in recent past which lead to a rapid boost in performance in relatively short time span. Geometry and Composition are key determinants of performance parameters of a solar cell device. This study investigated the thickness effect of various layers on performance parameters of PV device in Glass/FTO/ SnO2/CH3NH3PbI3/ Spiro-OMeTAD/Au structure. SCAPS-1D (Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator) is used to simulate the device with varying thickness. Findings of this study reveal that thickness of perovskite material and composition of device are key factors in efficiency of the device. Further research in this direction can result in more efficient perovskite based photovoltaic devices.
Keywords: Perovskite solar cells, Simulation study, Photovoltaic, Scaps-1D software
Anis Naveed1, Aroosa Bibi1, Rimsha Bibi1, Irfan Ahmad*
1Department of Physics, Government Degree College Balakot Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan.
The study area is located in the Mansehra district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The current study was conducted to examine the ethnobotanical profile of Union Council Peeran, which lies in District Mansehra. The region is endowed with a wide variety of unique flora. The people’s household requirements are met by plant resources. A total of 146 plant species are used by the people of Union Council Peeran for various reasons in their everyday life. 45 (31.7%) species are used as traditional medicines, 67 (45.2%) species are used as fodder, 27 (18.24%) species are used as fuel, 20 (13.51%) species are used as timber, and 26 (17.56%) species are used as vegetables. There were 21 (14.18%) different species of fruit plants, 1 (0.6%) of them were used as agricultural crops, and 2 (1.3%) of them were utilized as field boundaries. Poaceae and Rosaceae were the most prosperous families in the region. It was discovered that the local inhabitants employed various plant species for straightforward or multifaceted functions. The medicinal plants of the region were used to treat a variety of illnesses, including toothaches, bodily pain, indigestion, wound healing, asthma, abdominal discomfort, fever, skin disorders, and stomach pain. This study will assist researchers, traditionalists, taxonomists, and strategy developers in addressing the current state of plants.
Nafeesa Hayat1, Abbas Hussain Shah2
1Quaid e Aazm University Islamabad, Pakistan.
2Government post graduate collage Mandian Abbottabad, kp, Pakistan.
A large number of biological and pharmacological effects can be attributed to a class of naturally occurring compounds called terpenoids, also known as terpenes. These methods have shown promise in treating a wide range of infectious disorders, from bacteria and fungi to inflammation and even cancer. Terpenoids are built from two separate five-carbon-atom “backbones” in their most basic form. Monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), diterpenes (C20), and sesterterpenes (C25) are only a few examples of the various terpenoid classes that may be broken down by the number of carbon atoms in their carbon skeletons. Synthesis may take place either chemically or biologically, and both methods can be employed to manufacture terpenoids. Drugs generated from terpenoids may be synthesized using a number of chemical routes; these routes are all now serving vital roles in modern medicine. It is thought that terpenoids, because of their intricate molecular structure, can exert a wide spectrum of actions and use different mechanisms of action to achieve their therapeutic effects. In this article, terpenoids are discussed in terms of their functions and mechanisms. In addition, terpenoid molecules were predicted to be a valuable resource for the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of terpenoid-based drugs. This review will cover the multiple medicinal benefits of terpenoids, as well as their extraction and separation, structural elucidation, biosynthesis, chemical synthesis, and strategies for the development of terpenoids as drug candidates.
Key Words: terpenoids, extraction, isolation, biosynthesis, drug designing, drug development
Yousaf Khan1, Hakimullah2, Abdul Sattar1, Danial Mazhar1, Samina Aslam3, Syed Amin Ullah1, Madeeha Bibi4, Zia Ur Rehman Panizai5, Shakir Naeem1
1Department of Chemistry, COMSATS University Islamabad, 45550, Islamabad Pakistan.
2Department of Chemistry, Baluchistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Airport Road, Quetta, Pakistan.
3Department of Chemistry, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University, Quetta, Pakistan.
4Department of Chemistry, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan.
5Department of Environmental Sciences, Baluchistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Airport Road, Quetta, Pakistan.